Cheap and ecologically friendly energy resources are vital factors for sustainable development of the national economy. Due to global climate change and the depletion of fossil fuel resources, renewable energy may promote energy security and decrease harmful emissions. This paper aims at studying strategic directions for biofuel production and its utilization in Ukraine. On the basis of the literature review, steady world trends of renewable energy use have been revealed. Production of energy resources and the efficiency of their utilization have been analyzed. The modern aspects and priority of bioenergy use are highlighted. To evaluate the competitiveness of biofuels and their influence on energy security and ecological safety, organizational and managerial measures have been proposed.