All plants based on combustion of the fuel generate a large number of flue gases, which contain variety of pollutants. These include particulates, heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Tl, As, Ni, Pb), carbon compounds (CO, hydrocarbons (VOCs), (PCDD / F, PCB), acid and other gases (HCl, HF, HBr, HI, SO2, NOx, NH3), whose emissions are controlled, and subjected to the European and regional limits. In municipal waste-to-energy plants large diversity of fuel results in a considerable concentration of the individual compounds which can be dangerous for the environment. Due to these facts, it is necessary to take into account a flue gas cleaning stage in every waste-to-energy plant. The article divided into two parts shows technologies and processes that can be used at this stage. It describes methods used to deal with all kinds of pollutants at flue gases treatment stage. The paper presents emission limits imposed by the European Union with examples of emissions at working municipal waste-to-energy plants, and the limits that are to be expected in the future. Some topics, as costs and residual handling, are only briefly mentioned and for more information a reader is advised to use literature which will allow him to learn more about technology, processes and problems presented in the text. The aim of the study is to present the current state of flue gas cleaning in Waste-to-Energy plants.
ul. Balicka 120, 30-149 Kraków http://wipie.ur.krakow.pl/Katedra_Inzynierii_Mechanicznej_i_Agrofizyki.html