In the late Holocene (4 thousand years ago), there were favorable environmental conditions for the growth of beech and spread of beech forests formation in the western regions of Ukraine in a warm and humid climate. Continuous and disjunctive area of beech forest covered the area of 1,445 thousand ha, within which beech forests expanded in an area which was around 525 thousand ha. During the past two centuries due to various types of human impact beech forests have changed significantly both quantitatively and qualitatively. Those changes had negative impact on their coenotic structure. Within the natural habitat of beech forest the beech area decreased by 129.9 thousand ha, or 22.2% (relative to their current area). Ukraine is one of the least wooded countries in Europe (forest cover is only 15.7%). The reproduction of beech forests and the expansion of beech forest area is an important silvicultural and economic aim. Real opportunities for beech forests exist in moderately humid climate zone of West Ukraine. In Ukrainian areas of Roztochya, Opillya and Podillya, remains of natural beech forest are preserved. These phytocoenoses line out the Eastern European border area of beech forests. There is an interest to determine their dynamic trends due to global warming; furthermore such derivatives of natural biogeocenosis are subject to preservation.
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